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Работы Ломоносова в области химии
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Автор: Vladimir1122 3-02-2012, 13:17

Ломоносов был одним из величайших новаторов в истории химии всех времен

 

         Он по-новому осознал роль и значение химии, ее место среди наук, изучающих природу. Он впервые стал называть химию наукой, в то время как западноевропейские химики еще определяли ее как «искусство разложения тел смешанных на их составные части или искусство соединения составных частей в тела».

 

Химия - наука об изменениях, происходящих в смешанном теле. Таким образом, в этой формулировке предмета химии Ломоносов впервые представляет её в виде науки, а не искусства.

 

         Михаил Васильевич Ломоносов считал химию одной из главных областей своего научного творчества Он начал заниматься химическими исследованиями уже в ранний период своей деятельности, будучи студентом Марбургского университета.

 

         Вернувшись в 1741 г. на родину Ломоносов приступил к экспериментальным исследованиям в области химии. К сожалению, сохранилось очень мало материалов, характеризующих научную деятельность молодого ученого в 40-х годах. В одной из своих ранних работ, «Элементы математической химии», Ломоносов предложил краткое определение химии.

 

          Отметим, что Ломоносов, считал, что чистых веществ в природе почти не существует, что все тела являются смешанными. Ломоносов считал, что истинный химик должен быть одновременно и практиком, и теоретиком.

 

         1744 год, получив необходимые химические препараты, Ломоносов осуществил большую серию экспериментов по растворению металлов в кислотах и солей в воде.

 

         Ломоносов разделил все процессы растворения на две группы. К одной он отнёс растворение металлов в кислотах, когда в процессе растворения выделяется тепло, а к другой – растворение солей в воде с поглощением теплаВыделение тепла в реакциях Ломоносов объяснял следующим образом: «Частицы металла разносятся по растворителю, воздействуют трением на частицы последнего и приводят их во вращение и так как вращательное движение есть причина теплоты» .

 

          Следует заметить, что Ломоносов основывал свои умозаключения на собственных опытах. В результате ему удалось описать очень точные и тонкие частные наблюдения и высказать новые взгляды на процесс растворения. В 1745 году Ломоносов пишет работу «О металлическом блеске», чуть позже «О рождении и природе селитры». В последней, учёный высказал взгляды о приложении физических законов к химии.

 

         Надо сказать, что большинство физико-химических исследований и сочинений Ломоносова остались незаконченными. Можно предположить, что основной причиной тому была незаурядная разносторонность ученого.

           В заключение подведем некоторый итог сделанному Ломоносовым в химии и физической химии. За сравнительно короткое время в основанной им химической лаборатории были заложены научные основы русской промышленности по производству цветного стекла. Разработаны приемы и методы аналитических исследований руд и сырья из различных месторождений России. Работы Ломоносова в области физической химии заложили основы развития этой науки в нашей стране.          

 

 
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