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Нобелевская премия по физике 2010 года. Новое лицо углерода.

Автор: Klopov Vladimir 17-01-2011, 14:58

 
Нобелевскую премию по физике 2010 года присудили за исследования графена — двумерного материала, проявляющего необычные и одновременно весьма полезные свойства. Его открытие сулит не только новые технологии, но и развитие фундаментальной физики, результатом чего могут стать новые знания о строении материи. Лауреатами Нобелевской премии по физике нынешнего года стали Андре Гейм и Константин Новосёлов — профессора Манчестерского университета (Великобритания), выпускники Московского физико-технического института.

 Графен – материал толщиной всего в один атом, построен из «сетки» атомов углерода, напоминает собой по строению пчелиные соты, потому что каждая ячейка шестиугольной формы.


Этот материал обладает отличной электропроводностью, хорошей теплопроводностью, высокой прочностью, и практически прозрачен. Идея получения графена лежала в кристаллической решётке графита, представляющая собой слоистую структуру, со слово связанными слоями атомов углерода. Проще говоря, графит- материал слоистый, состоящий из слоёв графена, соединённых  между собой. Несмотря на то, что графен при комнатной температуре существовать не может – он будет переходить в другие формы углерода, например: сворачиваться в трубку или принимать сферическую форму.

 Международная команда учёных получила графен простым отшелушиванием слоёв графита. Для этого на кристалл графита наклеивали обычный скотч, а потом снимали: на ленте оставались тончайшие плёнки, среди которых были и однослойные. (Как тут не вспомнить: «Всё гениальное — просто!») Позже с помощью этой техники были получены и другие двумерные материалы, в том числе высокотемпературный сверхпроводник Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O.

 

 Сейчас такой способ называется «микромеханическим расслоением», он позволяет получать наиболее качественные образцы графена размером до 100 микрон.

 

 Благодаря нанесению графена на подложку окиси кремния (SiO2), стало возможно изучать его под микроскопом. Новый материал стал проводником (будучи полупроводник). Благодаря этому его можно использовать в электронике и быстродействующих компьютерах, заменив не удовлетворяющий кремний.

 

 Сейчас работают над увеличением подвижности в графене электронов. Ограничение проводимости связанно с наличием в  SiO2- подложке заряженных примесей. Учёные учатся получать «свободновисящий» плёнки графена, что увеличит подвижность электронов на два порядка— до 2×106 см2/В.с. Такие эксперименты уже ведутся, и довольно успешно, но если пленка в таком состоянии будет  немного деформируется (становится волнистой), то стабильность ей обеспечена. Такую пленку можно использовать в различных изобретениях и сферах.

 За счет того что он практически прозрачен, его можно использовать в сенсорных экранах, а за счёт того что он «сверхпрочный», его можно использовать в создании новых гибких компьютерах, которые можно сверну в трубочку.

Но, есть проблема в промышленности производства материала, естественно снимать слои скотчем не годится. Но уже есть предложения масштабного производства графена, и они активно рассматриваются.

Ценность нового материала очень велика для развития физических исследований. Многие исследования можно будет проводить в лабораториях, а не создавать огромные ускорители элементарных частиц, вооружившись тончайшим в мире материалом.

 

подробная информация и полная статья на http://www.nkj.ru/archive/articles/18837/

 

 
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