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Познания М. В. Ломоносова в области литературе.
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Автор: Vladimir1122 16-02-2012, 13:23


(Пшенникова Полина)

Значение Ломоносова в истории литературы

       Поэзия Ломоносова, глубоко идейная, патриотическая, граждански направленная, значительно способствовала быстрому и успешному развитию русской литературы. И как ученый, и как поэт Ломоносов все свои знания и силы отдал служению народу и родине. Вся его жизнь была полна неуставных творческих исканий и героической борьбы с врагами, всячески препятствовавшими его преобразовательной деятельности в области просвещения. В своих предсмертных записях Ломоносов, между прочим, пишет: «За то терплю, что стараюсь защитить труд Петра Великого, чтобы выучились россияне, чтобы показали свое достоинство…Я не тужу о смерти: пожил, потерпел и знаю, что обо мне дети отечества пожалеют… »

Реформа стихосложения

        Огромной заслугой Ломоносова перед русской литературой является та реформа русского стихосложения, которую он провел вслед за Тредиаковским.            Появившаяся в XVII веке виршевая силлабическая поэзия перешла и в XVIII век. Но в 1735 году В.К Тредиаковский (1703 - 1769), поэт и учёный, опубликовал сочинение «Краткий и новый способ сложения стихов Российских». В этой книге он первый задался высокой целью: создать стих, соответствующий строю русского языка, отказаться от силлабического. Тредиаковский указывает, что «поэзия нашего простого народа довела» его до мысли, что русскому языку свойственно не силлабическое, основанное на количестве слогов в строке, а силлабо-тоническое стихосложение, опирающееся на одина ковое число ударений в каждом стихе, на чередование ударных и неударных слогов. Это была очень важная и правильная мысль.

            Ломоносов оценил основную мысль Тредиаковского: русскому языку свойственно силлабо-тоническое стихосложение. Но Ломоносов развил это положение, довёл преобразование русского стиха до конца. В 1739 году Ломоносов, учившийся тогда в Германии, написал «Письо о правилах Российского стихотворства», в котором доказав (и теоретически, и отрывками из своих поэтических произведений), что русский язык даёт возможность писать не только хореем и ямбом, как утверждал Тредиаковский, но и анапестом, и сочетанием ямбов с анапестами, и хореев с дактилями, что можно применять рифмы и мужские, и женские, и дактилические и чередовать их. Ломоносов считал, что силлабо-тоническое стихосложение следует распространять на стихи любой длины - восьмисложные, шестисложные, четырёхсложные, а не только на одиннадцати и тринадцати сложные, как это делал Тредиаковский.

Поэтическая деятельность Ломоносова

      Ломоносов был не только великий учёный, но и лучший поэт своего времени. Гражданин-патриот Ломоносов ценил то искусство, которое слу жит пользе общества, народа. Он боролся за содержательность и идейность литературы.            Писать стихи Ломоносов начал рано. Но его поэтическое творчество развилось и расцвело после возвращения из заграничной командировки. Он писал произведения самых различных жанров: оды, трагедии, лирические и сатирические стихотворения, басни, эпиграммы. Любимым его жанром "была ода".  Родина, ее необъятные просторы, ее неисчерпаемые природные богатства, ее сила и мощь, ее будущее величие и слава – это основная тема од Ломоносова. В своих одах Ломоносов также  прославляет победы русских над врагами" («Ода на взятие Хотина», посвященная взятию турецкой крепости Хотин в 1739 г.) или отмечает различные торжественные даты. Ломоносов писал и оды, посвященные религиозным и научным темам. Таковы, например, его два «Размышления»: «Утреннее размышление о божием величестве» и «Вечернее размышление о божием величестве при случае великого северного сияния».

Ода «На день восшествия на престол императрицы Елизаветы»

     Эта ода (1747) принадлежит к числу лучших од Ломоносова. Она посвящается императрице Елизавете и написана ко дню празднования ее восшествия на престол (25 ноября).          В 1747 году Елизавета утвердила новый устав и новые штаты Академии наук, по которым сумма денег, отпускавшихся Академии, была увеличена вдвое. В этом же году русское правительство собиралось вступить в войну на стороне Австрии, Англии и Голландии, воевавших тогда против Франции и германских государств. Эти обстоятельства и определяют содержание оды Ломоносова. Он приветствует Елизавету как поборницу просвещения, восхваляет мир и тишину как залог преуспевания наук.

 

 

 
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